C++ is a statically typed, free form, multiparadigm, compiled general-purpose programming language developed by Bjarne stroustrup at Bell Labs in 1979. It is the extension to C and it too is a general purpose programmig language. It is a middle-level programming language which comprises services of both High Level Programmig Laguage and Low Level Programmig Language. It inherits most of the C’s syntax.
It is procedural, generic and object oriented programming languae but not purely object oriented.It is an effective example of hybrid language. Initially, it was called “C with classes” because it had all the properties of C with additional concept of classes. But, it was reamed to c++ in 1983 pronouced as “see-plus-plus”.
It also supports Encapsulation, Data hiding, Inheritance and Polymorphism.
The standard C++ includes three important parts:
- The core containing all the buildig blocks like variable, data type, literals, etc.
- Rich set of library fuctions for manipulatig files, strigs,etc.
- Standard Templete Library (STL) providig rich set of methods for maipulating data structures, etc.
Merits over C:
It has various advantages over C. Some of them are:
- Stronger Type Checking.
- No support for generic programming.
- User-defined operators.
- Richer standard library and type safety of C++.
- It is better suited for distributed system programming.
- It is a powerful, efficient and fast language. It finds a wide range of applications – from GUI applications to 3D graphics for games to real-time mathematical simulations.
- It allows exception handling, and function overloading which are not possible in C.
History of C++:
C++ went through various changes until today from being renamed to C++ in 1983. In 1985, the first edition of The C++ Programming Language was released and first commercial implementation of it was released in October of same year. C++ 2.0 was released in 1989. The updated second edition of The C++ Programming Language was released in 1991. Then, C++ slowly evolved. In 2011, C++11 was released. In December 2014, C++14 was released and various additions were introduced in C++17 with further changes planned for 2020.
On which platforms it is compatible?
It runs on a variety of platforms, such as Windows, Mac OS, and the various versions of UNIX. Some compilers to run C++ programs are: Codeblocks, Apple C++, Bloodshed Dev-C++, GNU CC source, Oracle C++, Digital Mars C++, Turbo C++, Intel C++ ,e.t.c. A C++ source file should be saved with a file extension of ” .cpp “.
It also supports variety of programming styles. We can write in style of of Fortran, C, Smalltalk, etc., in any language. Aims of each style can be effectively achieved while maintaining runtime and space efficiency.
C++ is one of the most popular languages(third as of 2017 behind Java and C) primarily utilized with system/application software, drivers, client-server applications and embedded firmware. It is also used essentially in almost every application domain. As it is clean enough for sucessful teaching of basic concepts, it can also be used for teaching and research purpose. The primary user interfaces of Mac and Windows are written in C++.
It is portable too. The code written for Microsoft’s compiler without errors will compile using a compiler on a Mac, UNIX, a Windows box, or an Alpha.
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